Sen ensimmäinen painos julkaistiin 1913-1938 ja toinen 1954-2005. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. Other smaller groups include the Bohra as well as the Alawites and Alevi. Amongst his contributions are the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases,[222] and the introduction of clinical pharmacology. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization. Vikipedi® (ve Wikipedia®) kâr amacı gütmeyen kuruluş olan Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. tescilli markasıdır. Maturidism especially flourished in Central-Asia. [16], From a historical point of view, Islam originated in early 7th century CE in the Arabian Peninsula, in Mecca,[17] and by the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in West to the Indus River in the east. [114] Its rulings assign actions to one of five categories: mandatory (Fard), recommended (mustahabb), permitted (Mubah), abhorred (Makruh), and prohibited (haram). Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. During the time of Muhammad, any money that went to the state, was immediately used to help the poor. [312], At the end of the 19th century, Muslim luminaries such as Muhammad Abduh, Rashid Rida and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani sought to reconcile Islam with social and intellectual ideas of the Age of Enlightenment by purging Islam from alleged alterations and adhering to the basic tenets held during the Rashidun era. [1] The first edition was published in 1913–1938, the second in 1954–2005, and the third was begun in 2007. In Islam, God is transcendent and maximally perfect so Muslims do not attribute human forms to God. First steps in the science of vision", "It's time to herald the Arabic science that prefigure Darwin and Newton", "Socioeconomic Bases of Cultural Patronage under the Later Timurids", "Chapter Thirty – The Ottoman Empire, Judaism, and Eastern Europe to 1648", Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, "Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century", A Dictionary of Albanian Religion, Mythology, and Folk Culture, "Are secular forces being squeezed out of Arab Spring? Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the Devil, and aspects of one's own self (such as sinful desires), different categories of jihad are defined. [217] Many orthodox Muslims[who?] [199] Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests. EI2 is a somewhat different matter. Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran. [306] In the 19th century, the Deobandi and Barelwi movements were initiated. [115], Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis). [134][135] When used without any qualifier, jihad is understood in its military form. October 2009. The act of supplicating is referred to as dua. The original plan for publication, as laid out by Shafi and others, was for the Encyclopaedia (which was to be entitled Urdu Da’ira Ma’arif-i-Islamiya) to span between 20 and 22 volumes, with roughly a hundred illustrations per volume, published at a rate of four volumes per year. Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration. [69][43]:79–81 The set of rules governing proper elocution of recitation is called tajwid. Encyclopaedia of Islam je rozsáhlá knižní encyklopedie islámu.Jednotlivé články napsali významní islamisté z různých oblastí světa. ISBN 9004097384 (刊行時新版項目があれば新版を、なければ旧版から要約した用語集) 注釈 "Zakat." The following of decisions by a religious expert without necessarily examining the decision's reasoning is called taqlid. [134][133]:17–8 Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad," which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare. [57]:79 Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, theology and philosophy. Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. [223] His two most notable works, The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, were used as standard medicinal texts in the Islamic world and later in Europe. [141][142] Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam similar to sharia, inseparable from Islam and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice. [127] Hoarding of food for speculation is also discouraged. [414][415], Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali, Interior view of the main domes of the Blue mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, Sixty Dome Mosque, in Khalifatabad, Bangladesh. Amana Publications, 2006. p. 170. Hadiths can be classified, by studying the narration as: 'authentic' or 'correct' (صَحِيْح‎, ṣaḥīḥ); 'good', hasan (حَسَن‎, ḥasan); or 'weak' (ضَعِيْف‎, ḍaʻīf), among others. Encyclopaedia of Islam je uznávaná encyklopédia islamistiky.. Jednotlivé články napísali významní bádatelia v oblasti islamu z rozličných krajín. [332] Islamist groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood advocate Islam as a comprehensive political solution, often in spite of being banned. Enciklopedija Islama, akr. Islam, like Judaism, has no clergy in the sacredotal sense, such as priests who mediate between God and people. It was started in the 1950s at University of the Punjab, as a project led by Muhammad Shafi. He has never had offspring, nor was He born. A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanad, and the actual wording, called matn. Imam (إمام‎‎) is a leadership position, often used in the context of conducting Islamic worship services. [136][133]:17 Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare. Glavni nakladnik je nizozemska akademska izdavačka kuća E. J. Brill iz Leidena, u suradnji s londonskim Luzacom. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the first four leaders and became known as Sunnis. "[43]:79 Muslim jurists consult the hadith ('accounts'), or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Quran and assist with its interpretation. Signs in the heavens. [83] [82] The Quran emphasises that nothing occurs outside of His divine decree: 'Say, “Nothing will ever befall us except what God has destined for us.' See also. [230] Public hospitals established during this time (called Bimaristan hospitals), are considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word,[231][232] and issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors. In Turkey, the Islamist AK Party has democratically been in power for about a decade, while Islamist parties did well in elections following the Arab Spring. Reciting the Quran with elocution (tajweed) has been described as an excellent act of worship. Siljander, Mark D., and John David Mann (2008). [165] Placing the body on a bier, it is first taken to a mosque where funeral prayer is offered for the dead person, and then to the graveyard for burial. Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants, from mostly India and Indonesia, to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas. At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries self-identify in this way.[155]. A Enciclopédia do Islão (Encyclopaedia of Islam ) é a enciclopédia padrão e referência principal da área académica de Estudos Islâmicos. In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. [50][68], The Quran is more concerned with moral guidance than legislation, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values. Faith (iman) in the Islamic creed (aqidah) is often represented as the six articles of faith, notably mentioned in the Hadith of Gabriel. [337], It is estimated that, by 2050, the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "due to the young [citation needed], Defamatory images of Muhammad, derived from early 7th century depictions of Byzantine Church,[426] appear in the 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri. Allāh is traditionally seen as the personal name of God,[53] a term with no plural or gender being ascribed. Besides a great expansion in content, the second edition of EI differs from the first mainly in incorporating the work of scholars of Muslim and Middle Eastern background among its many hundreds of contributors: EI1 and SEI were produced almost entirely by European scholars, and they represent a specifically European interpretation of Islamic civilization. However, there are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam. The earliest three generations of Muslims are known as the Salaf, with the companions of Muhammad being known as the Sahaba. Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/;[A] Arabic: اَلْإِسْلَامُ‎, romanized: al-’Islām, [ɪsˈlaːm] (listen) "submission [to God]")[1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a messenger of God. Classical Sufi scholars defined Tasawwuf as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God", through "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use. 2006. Believers of Islam are called Muslims which means "submitter to God". [12] Volumes 10 and 12 were completed by 1973. [254] This probably influenced his exegesis on his Tafsir, which discounted much of the exegetical tradition since then. The Quranic word for angel (Arabic: ملك‎ malak) derives either from Malaka, meaning "he controlled", due to their power to govern different affairs assigned to them,[55] or from the root ’-l-k, l-’-k or m-l-k with the broad meaning of a 'messenger', just as its counterpart in Hebrew (malʾákh). [57]:23 Some of them, such as Gabriel and Michael, are mentioned by name in the Quran, others are only referred to by their function. [248], In scholasticism, Ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328) worried about the integrity of Islam and tried to establish a theological doctrine to purify Islam from its alleged alterings. [155][381][382][383] The Pew Research Center reports that respondents self-identifying as "just Muslim" make up a majority of Muslims in seven countries (and a plurality in three others), with the highest proportion in Kazakhstan at 74%. Their legal opinions (fatwas) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law. [213], Some Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life and emphasised poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. With the expansion of the Abbasid Caliphate into the Sasanian Empire, Islam adapted many Hellenistic and Persian concepts, imported by thinkers of Iranian or Turkic origin. [249] Another major characteristic of his theological approach emphazises the significance of a Theocratic state: While the prevailing opinion held that religious wisdom was necessary for a state, Ibn Taymiyya regarded political power as necessary for religious excellence. [218] Other branches of kalam were the Ash'ari school founded by Al-Ash'ari and Maturidi founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi. A qadi is a judge in an Islamic court. Sunni Islam and Shia Islam thus differ in some respects. In inquisitions, ibn Hanbal refused to conform[citation needed] and was tortured and sent to an unlit Baghdad prison cell for nearly thirty months. 2004. [194] Under the caliphs, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into parts of the Persian and Byzantine territories. [343][344], The largest denomination in Islam is Sunni Islam, which makes up 75–90% of all Muslims,[345] and is arguably the world's largest religious denomination. Honorific titles given to scholars include sheikh, mullah, and mawlawi. Periods of World History: A Latin American Perspective - Page 129, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia - Page 465, Strange Parallels: Volume 2, Mainland Mirrors: Europe, Japan, China, South Asia, and the Islands: Southeast Asia in Global Context, C.800-1830 by Victor Lieberman Page 712, Imperial Identity in the Mughal Empire by Lisa Page 4, Sufism and Society: Arrangements of the Mystical in the Muslim World, 1200–1800 edited by John Curry, Erik Ohlander, Page 141. [335], Religiosity appears to be deepening worldwide. A 2020 demographic study reported that 24.1% of the global population, or 1.8 billion people, are Muslims. harv error: no target: CITEREFHudson2003 (. Abu Bakr, a companion and close friend of Muhammad, was made the first caliph. [286][287][288] The ensuing mandatory conversion of Iran to Twelver Shia Islam for the largely Sunni population also ensured the final dominance of the Twelver sect within Shiism over the Zaidi and Ismaili sects. The empire was briefly interrupted by the Suri Empire founded by Sher Shah Suri, who re-initiated the rupee currency system. Salat is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. It is available online, printed "Parts" appearing four times per year. For example, North African and Spanish Islamic architecture such as the Great Mosque of Kairouan contain marble and porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings,[413] while mosques in Indonesia often have multi-tiered roofs from local Javanese styles. [294] The wealthy Islamic Bengal Sultanate was subsequently founded, a major global trading nation in the world, described by the Europeans to be the "richest country to trade with". "The doctrine of jihad: An introduction. Chejne, A. EI) on islamilaisen maailman tutkimukseen keskittynyt moniosainen tietosanakirja ja hakuteos. [195], When Umar was assassinated by Persians in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. To go one step further by offering a favor to the offender is regarded the highest excellence. [158]:106 In the seventh day, the aqiqah ceremony is performed, in which an animal is sacrificed and its meat is distributed among the poor. [112] Pious Muslims recite the whole Quran at the month of Ramadan. Conservative estimates of annual zakat is estimated to be 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions. [249] He further rejected many hadiths circulating among Muslims during his time and relied only on Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim repeatedly to foil Asharite doctrine. [210] However, Islamic law would not be codified until 1869. [113] One who has memorized the whole Quran is called a hafiz ('memorizer') who, it is said, will be able to intercede for ten people on the Last Judgment Day. [1] Es una enciclopedia acerca del mundo islámico, no una enciclopedia musulmana ni islámica. "Sunnah Jami'ah, pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrim of Yathrib. [21], Most Muslims are of one of two denominations: Sunni (75–90%)[22] or Shia (10–20%). [citation needed] Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, argued for Sufism as being based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of the prophet. Wikipedia is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that also hosts a range of other projects. [xv][105][43]:90 The Quran says: Those who spend their wealth in charity day and night, secretly and openly—their reward is with their Lord. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. April 2017 um 10:28 Uhr bearbeitet. Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God. [71] This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. [65][66], Muslims believe that the verses of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl) on many occasions between 610 CE until his death in 632. [252] The Battle of Marj al-Saffar (1303) served as a significant turning point.

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